University students in towns throughout germany burned tens of thousands of ungerman books as part of the nazi push for state censorship and control of culture. The only writer to attend the berlin book burning was erich kastner, who looked on as his books were cast into the flames. In the middle of the square on 10 may 1933, nazi students burnt the works of hundreds of independent authors, journalists, philosophers and academics. The day did not go completely unnoticed here in munich today. Provides a bibliography listing the works, including many library books, destroyed in the 1933 book burning at the technical university at braunschweig brunswick. The bebelplatz is known as the site of one of the infamous nazi book burning ceremonies held in the evening of 10 may 1933 in many german university cities.
He criticises the jewish intellectuals and talks about the symbolism of the burning of the books. On may 10, 1933, university students burn upwards of 25,000 ungerman books in berlins opera square. The true story of the reichstag fire and the nazi rise to. The refugee poet hans sahl, visiting germany from his new home in new york, told a german school class in a poem. On may 10, 1933, university students in 34 university towns across germany burned over 25,000 books.
The nazi book burnings were a campaign conducted by the german student union to ceremonially burn books in nazi germany and austria in the 1930s. We were supposed to participate in a patriotic meeting at the biggest square in muenster. Seventy five years ago, the nazis staged what is probably the most infamous of all book burnings. These book burnings marked the beginning of a period of extensive censorship and control of. The burning of books under the nazi regime on may 10, 1933, is perhaps the most famous book burning in history. Despite the claims here, the burnings were not a spontaneous act on the part of the german students association, the name taken by the nazi student group of the university of berlin but a carefully planned. Hitlers picture was everywhere and he was portrayed as germany s saviour. In february 1933, just a few days after hitler gained the position of chancellor, the government enacted the law for the protection of the german people, allowing for confiscation of such writings. German artist commemorates 1933 book burning with annual. A group of nazi troops and students gather seized papers and books to burn, in the opernplatz, berlin.
The nazi german student association organized a large bonfire in the center of the square where approximately 20,000 books were burned. German students, nazis stage nationwide book burnings. For the book burnings organized by the nazis in 1933, just months after adolf hitler came to power, were just the beginning of a persecution that would force. They believe that the book burning would keep the german literature and language from external influences. A member of the sa throws confiscated books into the bonfire during the public burning of ungerman books on the opernplatz in berlin, may 10, 1933. Book burning united states holocaust memorial museum.
May 10, 1933 marks the date of the infamous book burnings across germany. Hans kilson, a jewish medical student in berlin in 1933, recalls the book burning rallies. The books viewed as being subversive or representing the ideologies opposed to nazism were targeted for the nazi book burnings. The german student union the dst conducted a campaign, called the nazi book burnings, to ceremonially burn books in nazi germany and austria in the 1930s. Describe the scene of the 1933 book burning in nazi germany. Book burning is the ceremonial destruction of books or any other written works by fire. On 10 may 1933 thousands of books banned by germany s national socialist regime were tossed into flaming pyres. Goebbels organizes nazi student organizations and sa troops to ransack public libraries and the library of the humboldt university, and burn the books. A bonfire burns as hitler youth members walk past carrying nazi flags. In less than an hour, they gathered nearly half a ton of books, pamphlets, and teaching materials to be burned at the may 10th book burning. When books were burned in germany germany news and in. Lgbtq institute in germany was burned down by nazis teen.
But the unique symbolism of bookburning has a long and sinister history. The works of jewish authors like albert einstein and. Book burnings in germany, 1933 american experience. Describes the role of student groups and some faculty members in promoting the book burning. We would like to thank the crown and goodman family and the abe and ida cooper foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for. The nazi book burnings were a campaign conducted by the german student union the dst to ceremonially burn books in nazi germany and austria in the 1930s. Student burned books which showed a different opinion than the one from the nazis. Joseph goebbels speaks to the gathered young people. On may 10, 1933 there occurred across germany a mass destruction of some of germany s most valuable creative works.
The mobs also burned the books of helen keller, an american author who was a socialist, a pacifist, and the first deafblind person to graduate from college. Students preempt nazis, burn books in germany jewish. The site of the famous nazi book burning campaign of 1933 remembers its night of shame. In may 1933, the nazi party decreed that any book, which acts subversively on our future or strikes at the root of german thought, the german home and the driving forces of our people. In may and june 1933, a number of book burnings took place in germany, organised by the german student union. The aim was to ceremonially burn books that were considered to be ungerman. Nazi party leaders and student groups from various universities gathered to burn books which they considered to be ungerman in spirit. In 1817, german student associations burschenschaften chose. On the night of may 10, 1933, an event unseen in europe since the middle ages occurred as german students from universities once regarded as among the finest in the world, gathered in berlin to burn books with ungerman ideas. May, 20 on may 10, 1933, german students under the nazi regime burned tens of thousands of books nationwide. More night time shots people throw books onto the burning bonfire.
Where they burn books, they will, in the end, burn human beings too. The drive behind such acts can either be political, cultural, or religious resistance to the material in question. About 10 percent of the books in public collections in germany were. It consists of a bronze plaque and 50 bronze books in the pavement in front of the altes rathaus.
Book burning in berlin facing history and ourselves. Includes a separate listing of authors targeted in the burning. The speech and book burning were accompanied by the singing of nazi songs and anthems. Unused unissued material no paperwork dates unclear or unknown. The piazza became renowned after the shocking incident that took place on the evening of 10 may 1933.
On 10 may 1933, members of the nazi german student union and their professors burnt books as part of a nationwide action against the ungerman spirit. This began in 1933, shortly after hitler seized power in germany. And did you know what happened at the famous book burning. Nazi book burnings popular books burned by nazi during. May 10, 1933 german students, nazis stage nationwide book burnings. The books targeted for burning were those viewed as being subversive or as representing ideologies opposed to nazism. The book burnings were initiated and hosted by the nationalist german student association, thus stealing a march on the national socialist german students league. Sep 10, 2010 the earliest recorded incident of book burning in history appears, however, to be emperor qin shi huangs order in 2 bc that all books of philosophy and history from anywhere other than qin.
On the night of 10 may 1933, a crowd of some 40,000 people. German soldiers and civilians give the nazi salute as thousands of books smoulder during one of the mass book burnings implemented throughout the country to destroy nonaryan publications. On o may 1933 thousands of books were burned in germany in universities all ov the country. Book burnings in germany, 1933 american experience official. The true story of the reichstag fire and the nazi rise to power. But in the songs of the exiled, in the rustle of the wind, turning the leaves of a charred book, we shall tell you what happened. The works of jewish authors like albert einstein and sigmund freud went up in flames alongside. Within 50 years, more than nine million copies of books had been printed, and book burning was no longer an effective thoughtcontrol measure. The main book burning took place at berlins opera square, known today as bebel square, on the evening of may 10, 1933. It is impossible to put together an exhaustive list of all the books burnt by the nazis between 1933 when burnings started.
Includes a chapter examining the history of heinrich heines tragedy almansor, in which appears the prescient line. One of most famous instances of book burning occurred on may 10, 1933. Apr, 2014 unused unissued material no paperwork dates unclear or unknown. Students contribute antigerman books to be destroyed at a berlin book burning on may 10, 1933. Book burnings in opernplatz, berlin one of the first targets of adolf hitler and his nazi organization were books. By 1933, many of the persecuted authors had already left germany. Hitler burned books to remove the jewish influence from german culture during world war ii. Twenty years later she found a different set of readers treating her ideas with contempt. In 1933, university students were on a mission to cleanse germany of jewish intellectual ideas fishburn, 2007.
Several people read excerpts from book which were destroyed by the nazis on that fateful day. Media in category book burning in nazi germany the following 15 files are in this category, out of 15 total. The square outside berlin university a bonfire burns as hitler youth members walk past carrying nazi flags. Wolfram kastner burns a black circle into the konigsplatz lawn in munich to commemorate the nazis may 10, 1933 book burning in the same. Over a hundred years earlier, the german jewish poet, heinrich heine, had stated, where books are burned, human beings are destined to be burned too. A hundred years before the advent of hitler, the germanjewish poet, heinrich heine, had declared. The purpose of the nazi book burning was to destroy all ideologies that were considered to be ungerman. Book burning in berlin, germany, may 10, 1933 the holocaust. This time, however, the critics were in nazi germany, and instead of simply disagreeing with her, they added her collection of essays, how i became a socialist, to a list of degenerate books to be burned on may 10, 1933. Over a hundred years earlier, the germanjewish poet, heinrich heine, had stated, where books are burned, human beings are destined to be burned too. National archives return to the history place world war ii timeline.
Us holocaust memorial museum, courtesy of national archives and records administration, college park, md. On 10 may 1933, the students burned upwards of 25,000 volumes of ungerman books in the square at the state opera, berlin, thereby presaging an era of. Three months later, book burnings began on college and university campuses. The burning of the books 10 may 1933 berlin, german. Even as late as 1970, the 1933 book burning evoked responses in literature. Aryanization of germany in 1933 and mass book burning. The city of munich staged a small event titled reading against forgetting. We were standing in the middle of bebelplatz, a large square in berlin, germany, where the nazi book burning of all books by jewish writers or about the jewish faith occurred in 1933, and which now was the location for a memorial for the book burning travesty. The may 1933 book burning in nazi germany had a precedent in nineteenth century germany. Keen on nazi ideals, the young leapt to the mission of cleansing germany of degenerate influences such as heine, remarque and freud. On 10 may 1933, a large book burning took place on this square. On may 10, 1933 student groups at universities across germany carried out a series of book burnings of works that the students and leading nazi party members.
Over 25,000 books were burned in germany on may 10, 1933. In 1933, the authorities for germany began striving for synchronizing cultural and professional organizations with nazi ideology holocaust memorial museum. Propaganda why the nazis were able to stay in power. Compares the 1933 book burnings to other cases of book burning and censorship in german history. He ordered leaders of the regime to confiscate and destroy any literature deemed subversive to the national socialist agenda. During this book burning, several irreplaceable books were destroyed, including many written by sigmund freud, albert einstein and other scholars. When i got home that evening, i heard on the radio that 20,000 books were burned in berlin alone. On may 10, 1933, german students under the nazi regime burned tens of thousands of books nationwide. Now german rather than latin bibles were published at such a low price that the masses could own and read one without priestly interpretation. Many book burnings were held, but the book burning on may 10, 1933 was perhaps the most famous.457 1388 1345 1486 1003 956 360 792 289 1592 1595 1466 685 1545 95 459 1400 113 1453 1025 365 1533 506 1344 1015 598 905 1325 1235 1206 682 168